Read pages 1-5 of the case study, Statins Stat! (see attached pdf below), and answer the following questions.
1. Why are high density lipoproteins (HDLs) considered the good cholesterol? In your answer explain specifically what HDLs do that cause it to be considered the good cholesterol.
2. Why are low density lipoproteins (LDLs) considered the bad cholesterol? In your answer explain specifically what LDLs do that cause it to be considered the bad cholesterol.
3. What is the role of the phospholipid monolayer at the outer surface of lipoprotein particles? (Question 1 of case study)
4. Why are cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triglycerides preferentially contained inside lipoprotein particles? (Question 2 of case study)
5. What are the two sources of cholesterol in the human body?
6. What is a “committed step” in a biochemical pathway? (Question 3 of case study)
7. Looking at Figure 4 of case study (the reaction pathway from acetyl-CoA), which enzyme is likely to be the target of the statin mevastatin? (Question 6 of case study)
8. What are four (4) ways that HDL levels can be increased in the body?
9. What type of inhibitor (non-competitive OR competitive) are statins with respect to HMG-CoA reductase enzyme activity? Explain why.
10. How were cholesterol-lowering statin drugs first discovered?