Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and other parts of the world. In the United States, Cancer kills more than 600,000 people yearly. Globally, more than 11 million people die of cancer annually (CDC, 2020). In America, the government spends more than $174 billion on providing services to cancer patients (CDC, 2020). Experts project that the cost of cancer care will grow by about 10 percent in the next two years.

The rise in cancer mortality rates can be attributed to factors, including the rise in alcohol and tobacco use, physical inactivity, poor diet, obesity, and overweight. Cigarette smoking was linked to approximately 19 percent of all cases of cancer and roughly 29 percent of cancer deaths (Mendes, 2017). Drinking accounted for 5.6 percent of cancer cases and 4 percent of cancer deaths (Mendes, 2017). Obesity and overweight were linked to 7.8 percent of cases and 6.5 percent of cancer deaths(CDC, 2020). In modern society, many people do not engage in physical activities, thus increasing the risk for cancer. Similarly, people have started eating processed and junky food, which has been found to increase the cancer risk. 

As a community health nurse, the primary prevention interventions that I will use include smoke cessation, reducing exposure to carcinogenic factors, increasing physical activity, and changes in diet (NIH, 2020). Because smoking is a major factor that increases the risk for cancer, smoke cessation is essential in preventing the occurrence of cancer. People are also encouraged to engage in physical activities like yoga, acupuncture, jogging, running, swimming, and riding. Early detection, screening, and effective treatment are secondary prevention interventions. Patient education and behavioral therapy are tertiary prevention interventions (CDC, 2020). 


Heart disease entails a wide range of heart conditions. According to CDC, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), which affects the flow of blood to the heart, is the most common across the world (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics). The increasing heart disease mortality rate has been attributed to various factors. Firstly, unhealthy diets lead to a mortality rate of heart disease. Diet is a critical risk factor in most conditions, including heart disease (Virani et al., 2021). For instance, obesity, a diet high in fat saturation, and uncontrolled diabetes are some of the food-related risks for heart diseases. Secondly, lack of physical exercise can lead to heart disease. Fat accumulates in the artery that carries blood to the heart when an individual remains inactive (Virani et al., 2021). Therefore, leading to blood flow restriction, which results in CAD. Thirdly, diabetic conditions contribute to the mortality rate of heart disease as it damages blood vessels due to high blood glucose. Lastly, excessive alcohol consumption for a long time weakens heart muscles, thus reducing its pumping power. Reduced heart-pumping power leads to insufficient blood flow, thus heart disease. 

Several factors have led to the change in survival in heart diseases, such as lack of enough physical exercise and excessive use of alcohol, which lead to high blood pressure. Also, taking a poor diet with a high level of cholesterol and fats and smoking tobacco has been associated with a change in survival in heart disease (Virani et al., 2021). There are various risk factors for heart diseases, such as age, family history, and lifestyle. For instance, leading a poor lifestyle characterized by excessive consumption of alcohol, fats, and cholesterol increases the chances of getting heart disease. Though heart disease is a severe ailment affecting many people worldwide, it can be prevented or managed successfully. Primary interventions include living a healthy life by eating a balanced diet, exercising, and not smoking or using alcohol. Secondary intervention includes seeking medication and adhering to healthcare officers' guidelines and recommendations, while tertiary involves coronary artery bypass grafting. Modifiable factors are a better prevention effort for heart disease as people who lead a healthy lifestyle have a reduced risk of getting heart disease (Virani et al., 2021).